CitationLeung, Michael; Krishna, Aditi; Yang, Seungmi; Bassani, Diego G.; & Roth, Daniel E. (2020). Linear growth and mid-childhood cognitive outcomes in three birth cohorts of term-born children: an approach to integrating three growth models to explore critical windows. BMJ Open, 10(8), e036850. PMCID: PMC7451285
AbstractOBJECTIVE: To illustrate that a mediation framework can help integrate inferences from three growth models to enable a comprehensive view of the associations between growth during specific developmental windows and mid-childhood IQ. DESIGN: We analysed direct and indirect associations between mid-childhood IQ and length/height growth in five early-life age intervals bounded by conception, birth, early, mid and late infancy, and mid-childhood using estimates from three growth models (lifecourse, conditional change and change score) applied to three historical birth cohorts. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: 12 088 term-born children from the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP) in the USA (n=2170), the Promotion of Breastfeeding Intervention Trial (PROBIT) in Belarus (n=8275) and the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS) in the Philippines (n=1643). PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Mid-childhood IQ. RESULTS: Our analyses revealed cross-cohort and cross-interval variations in the direct and indirect effects of foetal and early childhood physical growth on mid-childhood IQ. For example, in CPP, there was a direct association of prenatal growth with IQ that was not evident in the other cohorts, whereas in PROBIT and CLHNS, we observed that foetal and early growth-IQ associations were mediated through size in later periods. CONCLUSION: Lifecourse, conditional change and change score growth models yield complementary inferences when appropriately interpreted. Future longitudinal studies of associations of early-life growth with later outcomes would benefit from adopting a causal mediation framework to integrate inferences from multiple complementary growth models.
Reference TypeJournal Article
Journal TitleBMJ Open
Bassani, Diego G.
Roth, Daniel E.