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Parenting Styles and Emerging Adult Depressive Symptoms in Cebu, the Philippines


Hock, Rebecca S.; Mendelson, Tamar; Surkan, Pamela J.; Bass, Judith K.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; & Hindin, Michelle J. (2018). Parenting Styles and Emerging Adult Depressive Symptoms in Cebu, the Philippines. Transcultural Psychiatry, 55(2), 242-260.


Incidence of depressive disorders and symptoms increases during the transition to adulthood. The parenting relationship is a potential target for interventions to reduce risk for depression in offspring during this time period, and a four-category typology of parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, and neglectful) has been found to correlate with offspring psychological functioning. The majority of studies, however, have examined this four-category parenting style typology in Western populations. We used the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS) from the Philippines to assess associations between parenting styles reported by offspring at age 18 and depressive symptoms reported by offspring at age 21 ( Nā€‰=ā€‰1,723). Using adjusted linear regression models, we found that authoritarian and neglectful mothering styles were positively associated with daughters' depressive symptoms, whereas authoritarian mothering was negatively associated with sons' depressive symptoms. Findings suggest both cross-cultural similarities and variability in positive parenting. Results may have implications for family-based depression prevention interventions in the Philippines.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Transcultural Psychiatry


Hock, Rebecca S.
Mendelson, Tamar
Surkan, Pamela J.
Bass, Judith K.
Bradshaw, Catherine P.
Hindin, Michelle J.