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Parenting styles and emerging adult drug use in Cebu, the Philippines


Hock, Rebecca S.; Hindin, Michelle J.; Bass, Judith K.; Surkan, Pamela J.; Bradshaw, Catherine P.; & Mendelson, Tamar (2016). Parenting styles and emerging adult drug use in Cebu, the Philippines. International journal of culture and mental health, 9(2), 108-119. PMCID: PMC4912137


Parenting style is a potent and malleable influence on emerging adult substance use. Most of the parenting-substance use literature has been conducted in Western populations and it is unknown whether findings are generalizable to other cultures and contexts. We extended the parenting-substance use literature to a cohort of emerging adults in the Philippines using the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. We assessed associations between mothers' and fathers' parenting styles (authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, and neglectful) reported by offspring at age 18 and odds of offspring-reported drug use three years later, adjusted for a range of offspring- and parent/household-level characteristics. Females were dropped from analyses due to low prevalence of drug users. We found that many emerging adults in Cebu reported having used drugs, particularly methamphetamine-a dangerous drug with high abuse potential. Authoritative (warm, firm) mothering was significantly associated with sons' reduced odds of drug use and neglectful fathering was related at a trend level with sons' increased odds of having tried drugs. Findings underscore the relation of parenting styles to emerging adults' drug use and add to the literature on cross-cultural variability in parenting styles.

Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

International journal of culture and mental health


Hock, Rebecca S.
Hindin, Michelle J.
Bass, Judith K.
Surkan, Pamela J.
Bradshaw, Catherine P.
Mendelson, Tamar