Skip to main content
Prenatal Care and Pregnancy Outcome in the Philippines – Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey

Prenatal Care and Pregnancy Outcome in the Philippines


Guilkey, David K.; Popkin, Barry M.; Akin, John S.; & Wong, Emelita L. (1989). Prenatal Care and Pregnancy Outcome in the Philippines. Journal of Development Economics, 30, 241-272.


This paper examines the direct and indirect effects of patterns of prenatal care usage on birth weight and gestational age for a randomly selected sample of 3,080 rural and urban women. We analyze indirect effects of prenatal care on intermediate maternal factors (nutritional, stress, smoking, and drinking), then the impacts of these factors along with prenatal care on pregnancy outcome. The simultaneous equations statistical approach corrects for endogeneity of prenatal care and the intermediate maternal factors. Results of simulations of the effects of changes in the number of prenatal visits on intermediate and health outcome factors have important policy implications.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

Journal of Development Economics


Guilkey, David K.
Popkin, Barry M.
Akin, John S.
Wong, Emelita L.