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Growth Dynamics during the First Two Years of Life: A Prospective Study in the Philippines


Adair, Linda S.; Popkin, Barry M.; VanDerslice, James; Akin, John S.; Guilkey, David K.; Black, Robert E.; Briscoe, John; & Flieger, Wilhelm (1993). Growth Dynamics during the First Two Years of Life: A Prospective Study in the Philippines. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 47(1), 42-51.


This study examines determinants of growth from birth to 24 months in a sample of approximately 3000 urban and rural Filipino children. Individual, household, and community data were collected bimonthly during the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Separate longitudinal, multivariate models were used to identify determinants of weight in children from birth to 6 months and 6-24 months of age. Previous weight, male gender, mother's height, and season of the year showed significant positive associations with weight in all models. Full and mixed breast-feeding significantly increased weight, but the effects of breast-feeding declined as children got older. Breast-feeding had a direct growth-enhancing effect in addition to its indirect effect through the prevention of diarrheal morbidity. Detrimental effects of recent diarrheal morbidity were particularly important in the older age group, but these effects were mitigated by breast-feeding. Since infant feeding variables are included in the models, the results strongly suggest an effect of diarrheal morbidity on growth independent of its known effects on infant feeding and dietary intake. Febrile respiratory infections had important detrimental effects on weight in both age groups.


Reference Type

Journal Article

Year Published


Journal Title

European Journal of Clinical Nutrition


Adair, Linda S.
Popkin, Barry M.
VanDerslice, James
Akin, John S.
Guilkey, David K.
Black, Robert E.
Briscoe, John
Flieger, Wilhelm