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Nutrition, Lactation, and Birth Spacing in Filipino Women


Popkin, Barry M.; Guilkey, David K.; Akin, John S.; Adair, Linda S.; Udry, J. Richard; & Flieger, Wilhelm (1993). Nutrition, Lactation, and Birth Spacing in Filipino Women. Demography, 30(3), 333-352.


The Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey is used to examine the roles of women’s nutrition and infant feeding in determining time from birth to menses and time from menses to conception. The analysis sample includes 2,648 Filipino women followed for 24 months postpartum. Recently devised statistical estimation techniques to control for unobserved heterogeneity and endogeneity are employed in estimating a two-state hazard model. Low body mass index and lower dietary fat intake are associated with increased duration of postpartum amenorrhea. Contraceptive use, high dietary fat consumption, higher parity, and absence of spouse predict a longer waiting time to conception once menses have returned. Simulation of the hazard model is used to examine the effects of the key nutrition and lactation factors.


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Journal Article

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Popkin, Barry M.
Guilkey, David K.
Akin, John S.
Adair, Linda S.
Udry, J. Richard
Flieger, Wilhelm